This website shows the climate-energy-economy modelling results used in the Asian Development Outlook Update 2016 Theme Chapter (available at

The World Induced Technical Change Hybrid (WITCH) global energy-economy-climate model has been used to assess Developing Asia’s climate change mitigation potential. This modeling captures long-term growth, endogenous technical change, and strategic mitigation actions among such regions. WITCH has been extended to represent the mitigation opportunities in the land use and forestry sectors via a soft link to a detailed agricultural and land use model (GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA) which provided key information regarding the supply cost functions of biomass and marginal abatement costs in the land use and forestry sector.

The scenarios assessed reflect a Shared Socioeconomics Pathways (SSP) 2 based business as usual scenario, and alternative options framed around the Paris Agreement, in terms of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions and alternative pathways to limit mean global warming to 2°C. Global carbon trade is excluded and included in the mitigation scenarios.


Asian Development Bank (2016): Asian development outlook 2016 update. Meeting the low-carbon growth challenge. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Reis, L. A., J. Emmerling, M. Tavoni, and D. Raitzer (2016): The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Developing Asia. ADB Economics Working Paper Series No. 504, December 2016, Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines.

Emmerling, J., L. Drouet, L. A. Reis, M. Bevione, L. Berger, V. Bosetti, S. Carrara, E. De Cian, G. de Maere d’Aertrycke, T. Longden, M. Malpede, G. Marangoni, F. Sferra, M. Tavoni, J. Witajewski-Baltvilks, and P. Havlík (2016): The WITCH 2016 Model – Documentation and Implementation of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. FEEM Working Paper No. 42.2016.